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شیمیدان جوان - عنصر رادون
 
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رادون عنصری گازی بی رنگ و رادیو اکتیویته است که از فرو پاشی رادیم به دست می آید . رادون یکی از سنگینترین گازهاست و برای سلامتی مضر است . پایدارترین ایزوتوپ آن Rn-222 است که نیمه عمر 3.8 روز دارد و در پرتو درمانی استفاده می شود . هنگامی که زیر نقطه انجماد سرد می شود رنگ فسفری درخشانی دارد که در درجه حرارت پایین تر به زرد تبدیل می شود و در دمای هوا به قرمز و نارنجی تبدیل می شود . این عنصر در سال 1900 توسط Friedrich Ernst کشف گردید .

در سال 1908 Ramsay , Gray این عنصر را توسط تعیین چگالی از گازهای سنگین جداسازی کردند. این عنصر ذاتاً بی اثر است و در جدول تناوبی در گروه گازهای نجیب وجود دارد. از سال 1923 نام این عنصر رادون نهاده شد.
حدود 20 ایزوتوپ از این عنصر شناخته شده است. رادون 220 ناشی از توریوم طبیعی دارای نیمه عمر 55.6 ثانیه است و اشعه آلفا از خود ساتع می کند. رادون 219 از اکتینیوم گرفته شده است. این ایزوتوپ دارای نیم عمر 3.96 ثانیه است و از خود اشعه آلفا ساتع می کند. رادون در آب چشمه ها وجود دارد مثل چشمه آبی داغ Arkansas .
میانگین میزان رادون در هوا 1 x 1021 قسمت است. رادون در دمای معمولی گاز بی رنگی است وقتی که دما به زیر صفر می رسد رادون به رنگ فسفری مایل به زرد درخشان در می آید که با پایین آمدن دما رنگ آن قرمز مایل به پرتقالی می شود.
رادون هنوز برای مصارف بیمارستانی مثل سوزن بخیه مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد
قیمت این عنصر حدود 4 دلار در m است.
در موقع استفاده از این عنصر باید دقت لازم را به عمل آورد. باید در آزمایشگاه هنگام استفاده تهویه لازم داشته باشد تا به بدن آسیبی نرسد. توسط پرتوهای رادون آسیب زیادی به ششها می رسد.




عنصر Rn در طبیعت


اثرات رادون بر روی سلامتی
رادون در محیط زیست به صورت گازی وجود دارد. در نتیجه از راه تنفس وارد بدن انسان می شود. به طور کلی میزان رادون موجود در دیگر بخشهای زیست کره، پایین است اما در محیطهای بسته میزان رادون موجود درهوا اندکی بالاتر است. در خانه، مدرسه و ساختمانها، میزان رادون بیشتر است زیرا رادون از طریق شکافهای موجود وارد خانه می شود.
بعضی از چاههای عمیقی که از آنها آب آشامیدنی استحصال می شود هم حاوی رادون می باشند. در نتیجه رادون از طریق آب آشامیدنی وارد بدن بعضی از افراد می شود.
میزان رادون موجود در آب زیرزمینی هم بالاست اما معمولا رادون به سرعت در هوا منتشر می شود و از طریق آب زیرزمینی وارد آبهای سطحی می شود.
تنفس غلظت بالای رادون باعث بیماریهای ریوی می شود. وقتی تماس با رادون طولانی مدت باشد، احتمال بروز سرطان ریه افزایش می یابد. رادون سالها بعد از تماس باعث ابتلا به سرطان می شود.
رادون می تواند رادیواکتیو باشد اما تابش گامای آن اندک است. در نتیجه اثرات مضر ناشی از تابش رادون بدون تماس با ترکیبات رادون رخ نمی دهند.
هنوز مشخص نشده که آیا رادون می تواند باعث ایجاد عوارض در دیگر اندامهای اطراف شش شود یا نه. اثرات و عوارض ناشی از وجود رادون در غذا و آب آشامیدنی ناشناخته هستند.

اثرات زیست محیطی رادون
رادون یکی از ترکیبات رادیواکتیو است که به ندرت در محیط به صورت طبیعی وجود دارد. اکثر ترکیبات رادون موجود در محیط زیست ناشی از فعالیتهای بشری هستند. رادون از راه خاک، معادن اورانیوم و فسفات و احتراق ذغال وارد محیط می شود.
بخشی از رادون موجود در خاک به سطح می رسد و از راه تبخیر وارد هوا می شود. در هوا ،ترکیبات رادون به ذرات گرد و غبار و دیگر ذرات می چسبند. رادون می تواند در خاک به سمت بخشهای پایینی حرکت کند و وارد آب زیرزمینی می شود. اما قسمت عمده رادون در خاک باقی می ماند.
طول عمر رادون رادیواکتیو حدود 4 روز است. این بدان معناست که از مقدار مشخصی رادون، نیمی از آن ظرف چهار روز به ترکیبات دیگری که معمولا زیان کمتری دارند تبدیل می شود.


خواص فیزیکی و شیمیایی عنصر رادون :
عدد اتمی : 86
جرم اتمی : 222
نقطه ذوب : C° -71
نقطه جوش : C° -61.7
شعاع اتمی : Å 1.20
ظرفیت : کامل
حالت استاندارد : گاز
نام گروه : 18
انرژی یونیزاسیون : Kj/mol 1037
شکل الکترونی : Xe4f14 5d10 6s2 6p66
دانسیته : 9.96×10-3
گرمای فروپاشی : Kj/mol 2.89
گرمای تبخیر : Kj/mol 16.4
گرمای ویژه: J/g Ko 94
دوره تناوبی : 6

شماره سطح انرژی : 6
اولین انرژی : 2
دومین انرژی : 8
سومین انرژی : 18
چهارمین انرژی : 32
پنجمین انرژی : 18
ششمین انرژی : 8
ایزوتوپ :
ایزوتوپ نیمه عمر
Rn-211 14.6 ساعت
Rn-212 24.0 دقیقه
Rn-217 0.6 میلی ثانیه
Rn-218 35.0 میلی ثانیه
Rn-219 3.96 ثانیه
Rn-220 55.61 ثانیه
Rn-222 3.82 روز
موارد استفاده : پیش بینی زمین لرزه و تهدیدهای ناشی از سرطان
منابع : تخریب رادیم و بدست بشر نیز ساخته شده است .





نوع مطلب : جدول تناوبی عناصر، 
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چهارشنبه 14 بهمن 1388
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